What are kidney stones?


Kidney stones are deposits of minerals that crystallize in the urine when they become highly concentrated.

Kidney stones are created when there is a buildup of crystals in the urine. The stones sometimes pass through the ureter, but can also lodge in the kidney. When they block the ureter they can cause a backup of urine, which can lead to extreme pain.

The risk factors

Risk factors can include a family history of kidney stones, obesity, digestive disease, diets high in protein, sodium, and sugar, and dehydration. Diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis and cysinuria can also be a contributing factor.


  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present
  • Urinating small amounts of urine

What are calcium stones?

Most common type of kidney stones.

Most people flush extra calcium their bodies don’t use out in their urine.

Several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium in urine, as can some diets, high levels of vitamin D.

Can also result from intestinal bypass surgery.